Le Congrès mondial de la Nature
A NEW STEP AFTER THE PARIS AGREEMENT
The IUCN World Conservation Congress, to be held in Parc Chanot, Marseille between 11-19 June 2020, is a decisive meeting to accelerate French public policies and raise awareness about nature conservation and biodiversity.
Leading up to the 15th Conference of Parties (COP) at the Convention on Biological Diversity (China, 2020), this event constitutes a unique opportunity to reinforce national and international action for the preservation of biodiversity.
THE INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE CONSERVATION OF NATURE
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organizations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organizations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.
Created March the 5th 1948 in Fontainebleau, France, it has become the world authority regarding the state of the natural world and the measures necessary to safeguard it: with its 1,300 members and 10,000 international experts, the IUCN is the largest and most diverse environmental network on the planet.
The IUCN experts are divided into six Commissions, each dedicated to: Species Conservation, Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, Environmental Law, Economic and Social Policies, Education and Communication. The knowledge and tools provided by the IUCN makes it possible to establish its Red List of endangered species each year.
THE IUCN CONGRESS’ OBJECTIVES
Held every four years, the IUCN World Conservation Congress brings together several thousand leaders and decision-makers from governments, civil society, indigenous peoples, business and academia, with the aim of preserving the environment and use the solutions that nature provides to meet the current challenges of our planet.
Its objectives are :
Establish and influence action priorities for conservation
Gather and mobilize the global conservation network
Identify and discuss important and emerging conservation issues
Launch specific actions in favor of conservation
Prepare for COP15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity to be held in China, late 2020
A CONGRESS ARTICULATED AROUND 7 THEMES
Management of spaces for nature and people
Protecting water to support life
Restoring ocean health
Implementing nature-based solutions against climate change
Supporting rights, ensuring fair and just governance
Transforming finance and the economy
Pushing the boundaries of technology and knowledge
NATURE GENERATION AREAS FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC
For the first time, there will be spaces dedicated to highlighting the actions and engagement of non-state actors and citizens, mobilized in the fight against the erosion of biodiversity.
The Nature Generation Areas, piloted by the French Ministry of Ecological and Solidarity Transition and the French Biodiversity Agency, will be open to the general public at the Congress venue in Parc Chanot, Marseille. They will allow everyone to enjoy innovative, creative, fun experiences and will showcase the mobilisation efforts and actions of citizens, regions, companies, as well as those of all the actors involved in the fight against biodiversity loss.
WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY?
Difficult as it is to clearly define what biodiversity is, it is easier to start with what it is not:
Biodiversity is not a list of independent species. It is a living, real and moving whole, the foundation of life on Earth. More than a characteristic, it is life itself. We call it "the living tissue of the planet"
Biodiversity is not just about the diversity of species. It also refers to the diversity of genes and ecosystems.
Biodiversity is not just an environmental issue. It is also an issue linked to development, to the economy, to security, society and ethics, it is a cultural issue. The term was first internationalized at the Rio Planetary Summit in 1992, a political event and not primarily a scientific one.
FACING THE SIXTH EXTINCTION
By 2050, more than a quarter of living species could disappear due to climate change, that has never occurred in human history.
Today, a third of bird species in France are threatened.
There have already been five other "extinctions" since the appearance of life on Earth, that is to say mass collapses of species linked to sudden and rapid changes in environmental and climatic conditions. The last crisis, 65 million years ago, marked the disappearance of the dinosaurs. It was caused by the arrival of a huge meteorite that probably fell in Central America. Currently, we are witnessing a massive disappearance of species, at a rate at least a thousand times greater than the natural rate of extinction.
The"originality" of this sixth crisis, apart from its immense scale, is that it is not linked to external climatic upheavals but that we humans are the root cause. The five direct factors of change affecting nature have been identified (in order of importance): Changes in Land and Sea Use, Direct Exploitation of Certain Organisms, Change Climate, Pollution, Invasive Alien Species.
The IUCN Red List regularly assesses and reports on the health of the world's biodiversity. The report is alarming. Worldwide, according to the latest update, 22% of all known mammals, 30% of amphibians, 12% of birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fish, 70% of plants and 35% invertebrates are endangered.
There are many ways to safeguard Biodiversity which vary according to the actors, the strategies and the means available. Some focus on law and legal action, others through technical innovation, but among the various solutions that exist, they are called nature-based solutions, which rely on ecosystems to meet global challenges are often overlooked or underestimated.
Concretely, they concern three types of actions, which can be combined in different territories, namely the preservation of ecosystems that are intact and in good ecological condition, the improvement of the sustainable management of ecosystems used by human activities, and the restoration of degraded ecosystems or creation of ecosystems.
What if, like nature-based solutions, we complement this with culture-based solutions? This is the commitment of VIVANT, to develop and deploy concrete local initiatives throughout France.
NB : ces sources et les différents rapports d'où elles sont extraites sont trouvables sur le site de l'UICN